Jamaica Health Tips Blog
With the recent chaos on the media about the deadly
Ebola virus, many Jamaicans seemingly are concerned with the lack of
information and surveillance being conducted by the public health officials in
our island. For this reason the Jamaica Health Tips Online team has seen the
need to provide information to our fellow Jamaicans and the world that will
help you better understand this disease.
outlined on the CDC website is a rare and deadly disease, it is known to affect
humans and non-human primates for example; Monkey, Gorillas and Chimpanzees.
There are presently five identified strains of the Ebola virus; Zaire, Sudan, Cote d’lvoire, Bundibugyo
and the Reston (in non-human primates
but not in humans).
The first case of Ebola occurs in Southern Sudan in
1976 in a cotton factory. As reported by Dr Don Francis in a presentation at
the University of Berkeley, California, he believes that the cotton was contaminated
by urine of fruit bats in the area. As of August 8, 2014 it has been reported by
several sources that there are over 3000 confirm cases with over 1000 deaths in
the West Africa area.
- Human to human varies from; direct
contact through broken skin for example saliva,
urine, vomit, blood and semen of an infected person) or through unprotected mucous
membranes such as; eyes nose or mouth. Objects (like needles or syringe) used
by infected person.
- Butchering of animals infected with the Ebola
The primary host is believed to be the fruit bats
which infect other animals and by extension humans through butchering and the
consumption of animals for food (bush meat).
at high risk
- Health care providers e.g. nurses and
- Family and friends who are caring for
- Funeral home workers.
Fever, headache, chest pain, diarrhoea, vomiting,
dry painful throat, rash, bleeding from the ear,eyes, nose and mouth, malanea (black tarry faeces)
and desquamation (skin peeling). The symptoms may appear within 2-21 days after
exposure, but on average 8-10 days.
Practice careful hygiene, avoid funeral or burial
rituals that require handling of infected bodies, avoid contacts with bats, and
infected animals and humans, education of the public and proper training of
health care providers, isolation of infected persons, constant re-hydration of patient(s)
maintenance of oxygen and blood pressure status in patient(s) and an active
quarantine and surveillance system.
There is no known vaccine or medicine to treat the
Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever. However, several patients have recovered from their
illness by just treating any opportunistic illness and maintaining patient(s) electrolytes,
oxygen and blood pressure level.
Do you think Jamaican public health officials are prepared for the
Chikungunya is a viral disease that causes fever and
severe joint pains. It is spread to human by bite of an infected mosquito. The aedes aegypti mosquitoes spread or pass
on this virus. This type of mosquito also spreads the dengue virus.
The most common symptoms are fever and severe joint
pains, often in the hands, wrist and ankles. Prolong effects includes Arthritis
and disabling joints pains. In some cases, joints pains can last for several
months and even years. Other symptoms include headache, backache, muscles pain,
nausea, fatigue and rash.
There are no medicines to specifically treat
chikungunya or vaccine; however pain killers can be taken to reduce the
symptoms. It is paramount to note that
only paracetamol pain killersshould
be taken. Other pain killers such as Aspirin,
Ibuprofen and other anti-flammmatory drugs are not recommended as they may
increase risk of bleeding.
Mosquitoes which spread Chikunyunga bites during the
light coloured clothing and cover your body as much as possible.
mosquito repellents containing DEET on exposed skin.
mosquito coils and electric vaporization maths both in the day and night.
(mesh) your windows and doors.
The aedes mosquito
breeds and lives in standing water in and around the home hence do your part to
prevent them from breeding.
all open containers such as your drums, tanks, barrels, buckets.
rid of all old tyres, tins bottles, plastic containers, coconut shells and
anything in which rain water settles.
trash, punch holes in tins before placing them in garbage.
house plants in damp soil and avoid over watering plants.
and wash pets water containers as twice weekly.
over grown vegetation on your premises as frequently as possible.
see your doctor immediately if you think you or a family member might have
Source: MOH brochure
Do you have measures in place to protect yourself and your family from Chikungunya?
are mosquitoes attracted to some people than other?
Dengue fever is an infection caused by a virus
called Dengue virus. There are four
different type of this virus, Dengue type 1, 2, 3 and 4. A person can only be infected with each type
once in their life. The virus is spread when a female Aedes mosquito bites an infected person and then bites other
The female mosquito bites only to obtain blood from
its source to provide iron and other nutrients needed for the development and
maturation of its eggs. The belief is true;
mosquitoes do prefer to snack on some people than others.
There are three distinct reasons,
1· Carbon dioxide - producing more carbon
dioxide and lactic acid will cause a mosquito to be more attracted to you. So the reason we always hear a mosquito
buzzing at our ear is because as we breathe out the carbon dioxide from our
nostril, and they follow that track at the angel of the ear. With that said, a
pregnant woman is more attracted to a mosquito since she will emit more CO2.
2· Body temperature – producing greater
body heat will attract mosquitoes, especially if you have a chemical blood type
marker. So persons with type O blood
type are 24% more attractive to a mosquito.
3· Sweating – sweating excessively means
that your body temperature is very high and this will attract a mosquito to
you. Children are always victims since they are always busy playing and running
about. Additional persons who sweat easily and very physical and active
When infected with a dengue virus you may develop
Dengue Fever or Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (severe
form of Dengue which often causes death)
Here are some signs and symptoms,
onset of high fever and severe headache.
behind the eye, muscle, bone or joint pain.
rash, vomiting or feeling to vomit.
N: B for Dengue
Haemorragic Fever, in severe cases patients may go into a shock called Dengue
Shock Syndrome. In additional they may experience fainting, difficulty
breathing, bleeding from nose, mouth or gum, stomach pain and skin bruising.
To prevent mosquitoes from breeding is to prevent
them from having access to water.
· Keep all water holding or storage
· Brush your premises regularly, since
mosquitoes can breed in water on the grass leaves.
· Clean all drains and trenches to allow
water to flow easily.
· Pour cooking oil and other oil in areas
where water settles.
· Package, store and dispose of water
properly. E.g. punch holes in tins.
In case you feel you have dengue visit your doctor
immediately, rest and drink a lot of fluids. Use Paracetamol pain killers only; do not use pain killers such as Aspirin or medications that have Aspirin in them, since they may
increase your risk of bleeding.
Do you have measures in place to protect yourself and your family from Dengue Fever?
History teaches that a lack of hurricane awareness
common threads among all major hurricane disasters. By knowing your
vulnerability and what actions you should take, you can reduce the effects of a
hurricane disaster. As we continue in the hurricane season it’s of vital
importance that we put plans in place for the unexpected. It’s also never too
late to know the meaning of words that are commonly used in the hurricane
season, as this will ensure that the information you receive is clearly
Hurricane hazards can present themselves in so
many forms, so here are some important words and their meaning that is affiliated with the
watch: An alert for a specific area that hurricane conditions pose a threat to
that area within 36 hours.
warning: Hurricane conditions (winds of 74mph or greater or dangerously high
water and rough seas) are expected in 24 hours or less. All precautions should
be completed immediately.
There are five categories of
hurricane, category1(74-95 mph) being the least likely to cause any damage to
building structure however, it may damage primarily unanchored buildings,
shrubbery, trees, coastal flooding and minor pier damage. On the contrary a
category 5 hurricane (winds above 155 mph) will likely result in complete roof
failure on many buildings, massive damage to structure located less than 15
feet ASL (above sea level) and within 500 yards of shorelines. In this
situation it’s imperative that evacuation of residential areas on low ground
5-10 miles of shoreline is enforce.
As stated on the American Red Cross website; steps
that you can take to be prepared.
- Build a disaster supply kit or check the kit you prepared last
year. Include a three-day supply of water and ready-to-eat non-perishable
foods. Don’t forget a manual can opener, battery-powered radio, flashlight and
extra batteries. Your kit should also have a first aid kit, prescription and
non-prescription medications, and copies of important documents.
- Prepare a personal disaster and evacuation
plan. Identify two meeting places—one near your home, and one outside your area
in case you can’t return home. Make plans for your pets. Select an out-of-area
emergency contact person. Be informed. Know what a hurricane WATCH means.
- If a hurricane WATCH is issued: Listen
to weather updates from your battery-powered or hand-cranked radio. Bring
in outdoor objects such as lawn furniture, hanging plants, bicycles, toys and
garden tools. Anchor objects that cannot be brought inside. Close
all windows and doors. Cover
windows with storm shutters or pre-cut plywood. If
time permits, and you live in an identified surge zone, elevate furniture or
move it to a higher floor to protect it from flooding. Fill
your vehicle’s gas tank. Check
your disaster supply kit to make sure items have not expired.
ARE YOU PREPARED FOR A HURRICANE?
- If a hurricane WARNING is
to the advice of local officials, and leave if they tell you to do so. Secure
your home by unplugging appliances and turning off electricity and the main
water valve. If you are not advised to evacuate, stay inside, away from
windows, skylights and glass doors. Do
NOT use open flames, such as candles and kerosene lamps, as a source of light. If
power is lost, turn off appliances to reduce damage from a power surge when
electricity is restored.
Please leave your comments!
It’s that time of the year again when all eyes are focus on our children, May as we know it to be in Jamaica as“Child’s Month”. So as we look forward to that time it’s imperative that we the team at Jamaica Health Tips Online focus your attention on a very critical topic which is generally taken for granted. This is the health and safety of our children in early childhood institutions. Early Childhood Institution according to the Early Childhood Regulation 2005 means; a place that care for four are more children under theage of six years for more than six hours a day.
These institutions include daycare centres, basic schools, infants’ schools pre-schools and kindergartens.Almost all Jamaican infants attend an early childhood institution in the first years of their lives; hence it’s very important that they are safe and healthy during their stay. Hence here are a few things to take note of when leaving your children at these institutions.
The infrastructure must be secure and sturdy, weather tight to protect infants from rain and sun, adequately lit and ventilated and lastly floors and food contact surfaces (counters) should be repair to facilitate easy cleaning and a smooth finish e.g. tiles.
They should be supplied with water from a reputable source such as the National Water commission. This is to ensure that the water use for drinking is safe and adequate.
The premises should be equipped with garbage receptacles that meets public health standard to ensure that the waste is stored proper stored for collection by the National solid waste agency or other approved agencies. This will prevent fly breeding and other pests and rodents proliferation which may lead to serious health implications.
The physical layout ofthe premises should be of such that children have adequate play space in andout the building. The should always be on the ground floor, away from latchgates and items that may be harmful to them such as pointed edges, chemicalsetc. The premises should consist of a sick bay, changing, feeding and sleeping area and this is based on the number of infants.
Toilet facility must be provided for both staff and children. One toilet facility for every 20 children and one face basin for every 40 children. These should be the height of a wheelchair so children can comfortably access them.
As parents we should provide the child’s immunization card and other records to prove your child’s well being before he or she is accepted into the institution.
Staff and children should wash hands regularly, especially after using the toilet facility and before eating and preparing food.
Children should not be allowed to share toys that can be place in the mouth. Most importantly these toys should be washed and disinfected on a regular basis.
All cribs sheets,pillow slips, beddings and equipment should be washed and disinfected at least once per week.
The facility should be equipped with a fully supplied first aid kit, contact to a health facility andfire extinguishers in case of an emergency.
Most importantly the facility should have sufficient staffing to adequately and comfortably attend to each child.
Children under 1yr – 1 staff to 5 children
Children 1-2 -1staff to 8 children and
Children 3-5 – 1staff to 10 children
Staff should be ingood mental, physical health, sound and good moral ethics with no prove of any criminal records.
Our children are our future; hence we need to protect them today so they will grow to be strong and health leaders of tomorrow. We urge every adult to help a child this child’s month. For more information on ECI you can always visit the Early childhood Commission website.
Rats are one of themost famous rodents known to man; their skilful and unique characteristics makethem even harder to control. Nevertheless rodents are prolific poopers, hencethis makes it quiet easy to identify an infestation. The signs of rodentinfestation will indicate four things;
1. Species ( Norway Rat, Roof Rat and House Mouse.)
2. Currency of infestation
3. Level of infestation
Here aresome signs of rodent infestation
- Droppings – are usually soft and shiny when fresh, but they become crumbly and matt black or grey in colour after 2-3 days. They are sometimes left behind in pantries, in stove ovens cupboards, drawers, bins, and anywhere else they think they might find food, or where they scurry to avoid predators. It's also not uncommon to see droppings along walls, on top of wall studs or beams, near nests, and in boxes, bags, old furniture, and other objects. The state of the droppings can tell whether or not the rats and mice might still be around.
- Noises – rustling, squeaking noise are what you will hear when rodents are around. Noises are often more apparent at night as you're going to bed and they're waking up.
- Urine pools or trails. Rodents are notorious for having weak bladders, and they'll dribble all over the place. House mice sometimes make things called "urinating pillars," which are small mounds consisting of grease, dirt, and yes, urine. Sometimes you'll see tiny drops of urine leading to a mound.
- Odor – When rats are present they emit a particular characteristic odor. This type of odor is characteristically musty.
- Nests/Burrows - rodents build nests from soft, fuzzy, or warm materials, such as fabric, furniture stuffing, quilt batting, shredded paper, grass, and twigs, and will typically stuff them into sheltered, out-of-the-way places like boxes, cabinets and closets, walls, even the subspace between ceilings and floors. Other possible mouse nest sites include dressers, behind and inside appliances, and machinery, even computer cases -- basically, anywhere it's cozy and warm. Look for newly excavated dirt. Tunnels are usually 12 to 18 inches deep and several feet long.
- Grease marks. Mice can wedge through openings as small as a quarter of an inch in size. As they do, they often leave greasy smears — caused by oil and dirt in their coats — behind. The marks left by mice are fainter than those left by rats. If you find large greasy smears, you should suspect a rat infestation instead.
- Gnaw marks - gnawing is a defining characteristic of all rodents. They do it to keep their incisor teeth, which grow continually, in check. Wood is a favorite,but they'll pretty much chew on whatever suits them. This includes electrical wire, which, as noted in Electrical fires, makes them a leading cause of structural fires. On wood, newer gnaws are light colored. They turn darker with age. Sometimes you won't see gnaw marks, but you'll see what looks like fine wood chips or coarse sawdust, especially along baseboards, door and window frames, and cabinets. Gnawing is use to limit tooth growth in rodent.
- Holes in food packaging. Rodents will nibble into anything they can smell, including boxes and bags of pasta, rice, beans, and grain products. Dog food bags are also prime-time rodent magnets, and especially so for rats, who like the meaty smell as much as canines do. Another popular nibble, although not a food product: soap
- Live and Dead Rats – One rat seen in the daytime represents nine unseen. In addition if you see rats scampering around during the daytime it means that there is a large infestation and that there is high completion for food and space because there are so many of them. A dead rat concerns of an infestation or a disease 9plague) which may decimating the population.
- Tracks. Look for footprints or tail marks in dusty spots. The type of track and tail marks can tell you what kind of rodent you're battling. Mice have the smallest feet, measuring 3/8 inch or less. Rat tracks average between 3/4 to 1 inch. Rats also drag their tails, which leaves a mark between their feet tracks. If tracks are hard to spot, shining a flashlight across a suspicious area can help illuminate them.
Do you currently have rat problems in your home?
As Jamaicans do know if our Salons or Barber Shops are clean and safe?
They may not be, Jamaicans tend to assume that if a hair dresser shop or barber shop is operating for years then it must be safe. But that is not true, getting haircuts, and various other services poses a risk to everyone’s health if not operated correctly. Some things to keep in mind are poorly trained technicians, and dirty or illegal instruments.
In Jamaica with the standards sometimes not being clear to everyone, inspectors say there are many shops which sometimes do not meet the public health standards. Sometimes in some salons and barber shops there are old and dirty equipment’s being re-used when they should have been thrown away.
The reality is, salons and barber shops can harbor dangerous infection-causing bacteria and viruses, including MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and even hepatitis B.
Visiting them has become a case of ‘customers beware’ and it is up to us to protect ourselves.
Do you know if your hair dresser or barber is practicing healthy habits?
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It is summer and many Jamaicans are cuddling up and doing many summer activities. Here are 5 healthy tips to keep in mind when with your spouse this summer.
1· Respect your partner- You MUST have respect for each other at all times.
2· Understanding your partner – When in difficult times, understanding is sometimes the one thing that can save the love that exists, and when you give in to it, you will find that it’s much more fulfilling to compromise, regardless of mistakes or fault.
3· Communication with your partner – When things get rough, talk to each other. But remember, understanding and respecting each other. Be sure not to raise your voice and be aggressive. If you feel heated, take a walk, calm down and remember you love your partner. Even if you are dealing with hard issues, it is still important to talk it over. Let your partner know how special you think he is or how she makes you feel complete. Reinforce the good things that fill your life with comfort, if you want those things to live on. Make communication a common thing by reassuring each other that within the relationship exists a safe place to talk about any and everything.
4· Spontaneity –be spontaneous and see for yourself how it makes your partner feel. Try coming up from behind your spouse while he or she is doing some regular house work. Sneak up from behind them unexpectedly and caress them with suggestive tones. Find your spouse unknowing in an open room all to yourselves and walk right up to them and start to take their clothes off. Tell your spouse you want to run some errands together and take them to a hotel room. When your spouse wakes up to go to work- set aside some minutes for romance. A great start for a demanding work day!
5· Confidence – Be confident, it is very attractive when someone exudes confidence in their life in general and especially in their love life. But be careful not to be egotistical. Be sure of yourself and this allows for progress, communication, effectives. This can even change the way you and your partner feel about each other. No Jamaican is born with all the right moves, or touches sexually. It sometimes takes practice and you have to be confident that you can handle it. Otherwise you’ll just end up worrying about it and that can be bad. Jump in, have some faith in yourself, ask questions when necessary, and get the ball moving!
Are you and your spouse having a healthy relationship this summer?
People should remember many injuries can occur while preparing for a hurricane, or cleaning up the aftermath of a if. Use various tools, generators and other devices with caution. Always use gloves to put up hurricane shutters and take them down after.
Here are some things to keep in mind:
Before the hurricane:
· If you have to leave your home, pack an emergency supply kit with food, bottled water, prescription medicines, and important documents.
· If you have to drive, fill your gas tank as soon as possible.
· Turn off gas, electricity, and water, and disconnect appliances before leaving.
· Take steps to ensure your pets’ safety during the storm.
· Follow designated evacuation routes for your area, and expect heavy traffic.
If you are at home during the Hurricane:
· Pack an emergency supply kit with necessities such as food, bottled water, and prescription medicines to last from three to five days.
· Determine the best escape routes from your home, and make sure that everyone in your house is able to follow the escape plan.
· Look for escape routes from upper levels of the house, in case of flooding.
· Do not go outside, even if the weather seems calm. Wait for local authorities to tell you it is safe to go outside.
· If your home is flooded or damaged, move to a neighbor’s or a local shelter.
After the hurricane:
· Do not drive through flooded roads, as cars can be swept away or lose power.
· Never touch a downed power line or anything in contact with one.
· Turn off electrical power when there are hazards around your home such as standing water, fallen power lines, or gas leaks.
· Listen to announcements in local media (radio, television or newspaper) to find out if it’s safe to use tap water, and follow instructions regarding water.
· If you are not sure if water is safe to use, boil water before you use it for anything, including brushing teeth, cooking, drinking, or bathing.
· Throw away any food that may have been touched by floodwater.
· Use battery-powered lanterns and flashlights, instead of candles, to prevent fires.
· Stoves, generators, lanterns, and gas ranges release dangerous carbon monoxide gas and should always be used outdoors, far away from windows, doors and vents.
Have you started to prepare for the 2011 Hurricane season?
Some Jamaicans may say that caring for elderly parents can be difficult for family members, especially if they aren't proactive. Social interactions are extremely important to an elderly person's mental and emotional health. Regular interactions with people of all ages should be encouraged. One family member should never have the sole responsibility for caring for an elderly family member.
Traditionally, one might expect the children to look after their elderly parents, but grandchildren, nieces, nephews and siblings should also be involved. An entire family looking after its members reduces the overwhelming burden. Remember that elderly adults are not children. While some of your parents or grandparents suffer from mental frailties such as Alzheimer’s and maybe even dementia, the majority usually remain mentally active and alert.
Do not talk to them as though you are in charge. Remember to always show thoughtfulness, compassion and respect.
Do you play an active role in your elderly family member’s life?